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#### (Bore Diameter)/2)^{2} × π(3.14) = Piston Surface Area

#### ((Bore Diameter / 2)^{2} - (Rod Diameter / 2)^{2}) × 3.14 = Rod Side Piston Surface Area

#### Piston Surface Area × Stroke / 231 = Gallons (Volume)

#### (Cyl. Area) in^{2} × PSI = (Pounds of Force) LBF.

#### CYLINDER AREA IN^{2} × CYLINDER STROKE × 60 ÷ TIME IN SECONDS × 231 = GPM

#### PSI × GPM ÷ 1714 × PUMP EFFICIENCY = HP

#### TORQUE × RPM ÷ 63025 = MOTOR HP

#### PSI × MOTOR DISPLACEMENT ÷ 6.28 = MOTOR TORQUE

#### RPM × DISPLACEMENT ÷ 231 = GPM

Use this to find the area in working square inches on hte barrel side of the piston in square inches.

Use this to find the working surface area on the rod side of the piston in square inches.

Use this to determine volume of oil to fill a cylinder

Determine how much force will be applied with a certain cylinder and psi. You can also work backwards to find out what psi you would need to run to achieve a specific amount of force.

Use this to find the rate of flow based on cylinder speed or use to calculate the speed your cylinder will travel based on your GPM.

Determine your required engine horsepower using your PSI and GPM.

Determine your horsepower using your torque and rpm. Work backwards using your rpm and hp to determine your torque.

Determine your motor torque using the psi and motor displacement.

Determine your pumps gpm or work backwards to figure out your displacement.