### Cylinder Area (Sq.In.)

Piston Surface Area in2
= (
Internal Bore Dia. in.
/ 2) ×
π (3.14)

#### (Bore Diameter)/2)2 × π(3.14) = Piston Surface Area

Use this to find the area in working square inches on hte barrel side of the piston in square inches.

### Cylinder Rod End Area (Sq.In.)

Piston Surface Area in2
= ((
Internal Bore in.
/ 2)2
- (
Outside Rod Dia. in.
/ 2)2)

#### ((Bore Diameter / 2)2 - (Rod Diameter / 2)2) × 3.14 = Rod Side Piston Surface Area

Use this to find the working surface area on the rod side of the piston in square inches.

### Cylinder Volume

Gal (Volume)
=
Piston Surface Area in2
×
Distance of Travel in inches
231

#### Piston Surface Area × Stroke / 231 = Gallons (Volume)

Use this to determine volume of oil to fill a cylinder

### Cylinder Force

lbf. (Pounds of Force)
=
PSI (Pressure)
×
sq. in. (Area)

#### (Cyl. Area) in2 × PSI = (Pounds of Force) LBF.

Determine how much force will be applied with a certain cylinder and psi. You can also work backwards to find out what psi you would need to run to achieve a specific amount of force.

### Cylinder Flow Rate (and Velocity)

GPM (Flow)
=
in.2 (Area)
×
in. (Stroke Travel)2
×
60
sec (Time) × 231

#### CYLINDER AREA IN2 × CYLINDER STROKE × 60 ÷ TIME IN SECONDS × 231 = GPM

Use this to find the rate of flow based on cylinder speed or use to calculate the speed your cylinder will travel based on your GPM.

### Pump Input Horsepower

HP (Power)
=
PSI (Pressure)
×
GPM (Flow)
1714 ×
% (Pump Efficiency)

HP (Power)
=
lb-in. (Torque)
×
RPM
63025

### Motor Torque

lb-in (Torque)
=
PSI (Pressure)
×
cu.in. / rev. (Motor Displacement)
6.28 (2π)

#### PSI × MOTOR DISPLACEMENT ÷ 6.28 = MOTOR TORQUE

Determine your motor torque using the psi and motor displacement.

### Pump Flow or Displacement

GPM (Flow)
=
RPM
×
cu.in. / Rev. (Displacement)
231

#### RPM × DISPLACEMENT ÷ 231 = GPM

Determine your pumps gpm or work backwards to figure out your displacement.